5 years ago

B(C6F5)3-Catalyzed (Convergent) Disproportionation Reaction of Indoles

B(C6F5)3-Catalyzed (Convergent) Disproportionation Reaction of Indoles
Jianghua He, Yuxi Han, Sutao Zhang, Yuetao Zhang
A metal-free B(C6F5)3-catalyzed approach is developed for the disproportionation reaction of a series of indoles with various hydrosilanes, without any additives such as base and production of any small molecule such as dihydrogen. This boron catalyst system also exhibits excellent catalytic performance for practical application, such as catalyst loading as low as 0.01 mol % under solvent-free conditions, and a long-life catalytic performance highlighted by a constant catalytic activity being maintained and excellent yields being achieved for the desired products over 10 sequential additions of starting materials. On the basis of characterization of key intermediates through a series of in situ NMR reactions and detailed experimental data, we proposed a reaction mechanism which illustrated pathways for the formation of different products, including both major products and byproducts. Additional control experiments were conducted to support our proposed mechanism. Understanding the mechanism enables us to successfully suppress side reactions by choosing appropriate substrates and hydrosilanes. More importantly, the use of an elevated reaction temperature for continuous oxidation of the resulting indoline to indole makes the convergent disproportionation reaction an ideal atom-economical process. Near-quantitative conversions and up to 99% yields of C3-silylated indoles were achieved for various indoles with trisubstituted silanes, Ph3SiH (2b) or Ph2MeSiH (2d).

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b03534

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b03534

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