3 years ago

Carbon with Expanded and Well-Developed Graphene Planes Derived Directly from Condensed Lignin as a High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Carbon with Expanded and Well-Developed Graphene Planes
Derived Directly from Condensed Lignin as a High-Performance Anode
for Sodium-Ion Batteries
Wonyoung Chang, Jaehoon Kim, Jieun Hwang, Dohyeon Yoon
In this study, we demonstrate that lignin, which constitutes 30–40 wt % of the terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass and is produced from second generation biofuel plants as a cheap byproduct, is an excellent precursor material for sodium-ion battery (NIB) anodes. Because it is rich in aromatic monomers that are highly cross-linked by ether and condensed bonds, the lignin material carbonized at 1300 °C (C-1300) in this study has small graphitic domains with well-developed graphene layers, a large interlayer spacing (0.403 nm), and a high micropore surface area (207.5 m2 g–1). When tested as an anode in an NIB, C-1300 exhibited an initial Coulombic efficiency of 68% and a high reversible capacity of 297 mA h g–1 at 50 mA g–1 after 50 cycles. The high capacity of 199 mA h g–1 at less than 0.1 V with a flat voltage profile and an extremely low charge–discharge voltage hysteresis (<0.03 V) make C-1300 a promising energy-dense electrode material. In addition, C-1300 exhibited an excellent high-rate performance of 116 mA h g–1 at 2.5 A g–1 and showed stable cycling retention (0.2% capacity decay per cycle after 500 cycles). By comparing the properties of the lignin-derived carbon with oak sawdust-derived and sugar-derived carbons and a low-temperature carbonized sample (900 °C), the reasons for the excellent performance of C-1300 were determined to result from facilitated Na+-ion transport to the graphitic layer and the microporous regions that penetrate through the less defective and enlarged interlayer spacings.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b14776

DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b14776

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.