Generalised global symmetries in states with dynamical defects: the case of the transverse sound in field theory and holography.
In this work, we show how states with conserved numbers of dynamical defects (strings, domain walls, etc.) can be understood as possessing generalised global symmetries even when the microscopic origins of these symmetries are unknown. Using this philosophy, we build an effective theory of a $2+1$-dimensional fluid state with two perpendicular sets of immersed elastic line defects. When the number of defects is independently conserved in each set, then the state possesses two one-form symmetries. Normally, such viscoelastic states are described as fluids coupled to Goldstone bosons associated with spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry caused by the underlying microscopic structure-the principle feature of which is a transverse sound mode. At the linear, non-dissipative level, we verify that our theory, based entirely on symmetry principles, is equivalent to a viscoelastic theory. We then build a simple holographic dual of such a state containing dynamical gravity and two two-form gauge fields, and use it to study its hydrodynamic and higher-energy spectral properties characterised by non-hydrodynamic, gapped modes. Based on the holographic analysis of transverse two-point functions, we study consistency between low-energy predictions of the bulk theory and the effective boundary theory. Various new features of the holographic dictionary are explained in theories with higher-form symmetries, such as the mixed-boundary-condition modification of the quasinormal mode prescription that depends on the running coupling of the boundary double-trace deformations. Furthermore, we examine details of low- and high-energy parts of the spectrum that depend on temperature, line defect densities and the renormalisation group scale (dimensional transmutation).
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.03199
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