3 years ago

Delivery of xenon-containing echogenic liposomes inhibits early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage

James Grotta, Melvin E. Klegerman, Melanie R. Moody, Jaroslaw Aronowski, David D. McPherson, Hyunggun Kim, Tao Peng, Yi-Feng Miao, Shao-Ling Huang
Xenon (Xe), a noble gas, has promising neuroprotective properties with no proven adverse side-effects. We evaluated neuroprotective effects of Xe delivered by Xe-containing echogenic liposomes (Xe-ELIP) via ultrasound-controlled cerebral drug release on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The Xe-ELIP structure was evaluated by ultrasound imaging, electron microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, SAH, SAH treated with Xe-ELIP, empty ELIP, or Xe-saturated saline. Treatments were administrated intravenously in combination with ultrasound application over the common carotid artery to trigger Xe release from circulating Xe-ELIP. Hematoma development was graded by SAH scaling and quantitated by a colorimetric method. Neurological evaluation and motor behavioral tests were conducted for three days following SAH injury. Ultrasound imaging and electron microscopy demonstrated that Xe-ELIP have a unique two-compartment structure, which allows a two-stage Xe release profile. Xe-ELIP treatment effectively reduced bleeding, improved general neurological function, and alleviated motor function damage in association with reduced apoptotic neuronal death and decreased mortality. Xe-ELIP alleviated early SAH brain injury by inhibiting neuronal death and bleeding. This novel approach provides a noninvasive strategy of therapeutic gas delivery for SAH treatment.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18914-6

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18914-6

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