3 years ago

Trace analysis of nitrite ions in environmental samples by using in-situ synthesized Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as the novel green solid phase extractor

Trace analysis of nitrite ions in environmental samples by using in-situ synthesized Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as the novel green solid phase extractor
For the first time, a novel green method using Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as a green dispersive solid-phase extractor is reported for the separation and preconcentration of trace amount of nitrite (NO2 -) ions in ppb levels. The Zein protein is a biodegradable hydrophobic plant protein that is obtained from corn and is composed of a number of hydrophobic amino acids. Zein bionanoparticles were synthesized in an anti-solvent process and used as a new biosorbent in the extraction technique. In the proposed technique, by using a standard method at first, a mixture of 1-naphthylamine and sulphanilic acid as selective regents was added to the samples, and in the presence of the nitrite ion, a red azo product was formed. After that, the ethanolic Zein solution (equal to 15mg) was injected rapidly into the sample, based on the anti-solvent process. Zein bionanoparticles (BNPs) were produced, the adsorbed colour product was separated by centrifugation, and finally samples were analysed with the spectrophotometric method. The influence of different variables such as pH, buffer and amount of buffer, amount of adsorbent and effect of time on extraction were investigated and Zein BNPs were characterized by TEM, SEM, and FT-IR techniques. The main advantages of Zein as a new solid-phase extractor are that this biopolymer is non-toxic, stable, widely available, biodegradable, very hydrophobic, and can be fabricated easily. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear correlation coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.9972 at the concentration range of 5.0–1000ngmL−1. The limit of detection was 2.3ngmL−1 (0.05μM). This method was applied successfully for the analysis of sea and river waters as well as industrial wastewater samples. Finally, this method follows the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and WHO (World Health Organization) international standards for nitrite analysis. In addition, it has several advantages to warrant its applicability in the near future in separation science as a green biosorbent in both dispersive and normal solid-phase extraction.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0039914017308433

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