3 years ago

Ethanol extract of Ilex hainanensis Merr. exhibits anti-melanoma activity by induction of G 1 /S cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis

Yun-xing Liu, Juan Wang, Wei-dong Sun, Ya-qi Zhang, Min-qiang Yin, Yan-jun Shen, Yun Sun, Bao-yuan Zhang, Chang Liu, Hao Yang



To evaluate anti-melanoma effect of ethanol extract of Ilex hainanensis Merr. (IME) and elucidate its underlying mechanism.


Thirty-six tumor-bearing mice were randomized into 6 groups (n=6) as follows: model group, IME 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg groups and dacarbazine (DTIC) 70 mg/kg group. The mice in the IME treatment groups were intragastrically administered with IME 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg per day, respectively. The mice in the DTIC group were intraperitoneally injected with DTIC 70 mg/kg every 2 days. The drug administration was lasting for 14 days. The cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dime-thylthylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell cycle and apoptosis. The gene and protein expressions of nuclear factor κB-p65 (NF-κB-p65), Bcl-2, B-cell lymphomaextra large (Bcl-xL) and Bax were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Caspases-3, -8, and -9 activities were detected using the colorimetric method. In addition, a B16-F10 melanoma xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of IME in vivo. Furthermore, a survival experiment of tumor-bearing mice was also performed to evaluate the possible toxicity of IME.


IME significantly inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 cells (P<0.01). Flow cytometric analysis showed that IME induced G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (both P<0.01). IME inhibited activation of NF-κB, decreased the gene and protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and increased the gene and protein expressions of Bax (all P<0.01). In addition, IME induced the activation of Caspases-3, -8, and -9 in B16-F10 cells. The study in vivo showed that IME significantly reduced tumor volume (P<0.01), and the inhibitory rate came up to 68.62%. IME also induced large areas of necrosis and intra-tumoral apoptosis that correlated with a reduction in tumor volume. Survival experiment showed that treatment with IME for 14 days significantly prolonged survival time and 20% of mice in the IME 200 mg/kg group were still alive until the 50th day. Notably, IME showed no apparent side-effects during the treatment period.


IME exhibited significant anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that IME might be a promising effective candidate with lower toxic for malignant melanoma therapy.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11655-017-2544-8

DOI: 10.1007/s11655-017-2544-8

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.