3 years ago

Sodium storage mechanisms of bismuth in sodium ion batteries: An operando X-ray diffraction study

Sodium storage mechanisms of bismuth in sodium ion batteries: An operando X-ray diffraction study
Understanding the sodium (Na) chemistry is crucial for development of high-performance sodium ion batteries (SIBs). Nanostructured bismuth (Bi) has shown great potentials as an anode in SIBs, however, the Na storage mechanisms of Bi are still unclear. Herein, the operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was utilized to probe the Na storage mechanisms of three Bi anodes (sputtered Bi film, nanoporous Bi and commercial Bi). Despite different morphologies and sizes, all the Bi anodes follow the same two-step reversible alloying/dealloying mechanisms (Bi ↔ NaBi ↔ Na3Bi) during the discharge/charge processes, associated with two voltage plateaus. As for the intercalation/deintercalation mechanism proposed for nanostructured Bi anodes in SIBs, we rationalize the reason why only the Bi phase is detected in the discharged/charged samples under ex-situ XRD conditions through addressing the stability issue of the Na-Bi system (NaBi and Na3Bi).

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S037877531830017X

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