3 years ago

Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched with Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

Urmila P Kodavanti, Wan-Yun Cheng, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Gail M Nelson, Samantha J Snow, Andres Henriquez, Virgina Bass, Myles Hodge, Gleta Carswell, Haiyan Tong, Brian Chorley, Judy E Richards, Kymberly M Gowdy
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardio-protective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that while fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy003

DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy003

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