3 years ago

Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Individual Calcium Carbonate Plates Derived from Mussel Shell Waste: An Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction

Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Individual Calcium Carbonate Plates Derived from Mussel Shell Waste: An Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction
Sumrit Wacharasindhu, Sanong Ekgasit, Mongkol Sukwattanasinitt, Trin Saetan, Chutiparn Lertvachirapaiboon
The conversion of waste into high-value materials is considered an important sustainability strategy in modern chemical industries. A large volume of shell waste is generated globally from mussel cultivation. In this work, mussel shell waste (Perna viridis) is transformed into individual calcium carbonate plates (ICCPs) and is applied as a support for a heterogeneous catalyst. Palladium nanoparticles (3–6 nm) are deposited with an even dispersion on the ICCP surface, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this system, Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides and terminal acetylenes were accomplished in high yields with the use of 1 % Pd/ICCP in the presence of potassium carbonate without the use of any copper metal or external ligand. The Pd/ICCP catalyst could also be reused up to three times and activity over 90 % was maintained with negligible Pd-metal leaching. This work demonstrates that mussel shell waste can be used as an inexpensive and effective support for metal catalysts in coupling reactions, as demonstrated by the successful performance of the Pd-catalyzed, copper-free Sonogashira cross-coupling process. Waste not, want not: Mussel shell waste is transformed into individual calcium carbonate plates (ICCPs) and is used as a support for palladium nanoparticles (NPs). Pd/ICCP catalyzes the Sonogashira cross-coupling of aryl iodides with terminal acetylenes in the presence of K2CO3 without the use of copper or an external ligand. The Pd/ICCP catalyst can be reused up to three times and activity over 90 % is maintained with negligible Pd-metal leaching.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/asia.201700537

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