5 years ago

Activation of CO2 by Vanadium Nitrogenase

Activation of CO2 by Vanadium Nitrogenase
Markus W. Ribbe, Yilin Hu, Nathaniel S. Sickerman
The reduction of CO2 into useful products, including hydrocarbon fuels, is an ongoing area of particular interest due to efforts to mitigate buildup of this greenhouse gas. While the industrial Fischer–Tropsch process can facilitate the hydrogenation of CO2 with H2 to form short-chain hydrocarbon products under high temperatures and pressures, a desire to perform these reactions under ambient conditions has inspired the use of biological approaches. Particularly, enzymes offer insight into how to activate and reduce CO2, but only one enzyme, nitrogenase, can perform the multielectron, multiproton reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons. The vanadium-containing variant, V-nitrogenase, displays especial reactivity towards the hydrogenation of CO and CO2. This Focus Review discusses recent progress towards the activation and reduction of CO2 with three primary V-nitrogenase systems. These systems span both ATP-dependent and ATP-independent processes and utilize approaches with whole cells, isolated proteins, and extracted cofactors. Vanadium nitrogenase can reduce CO and CO2 to short-chain hydrocarbon products much more effectively than its molybdenum-containing counterpart. Three primary systems employing ATP-dependent and ATP-independent approaches have been developed over the last decade to utilize V-nitrogenase for the reduction of CO2 into useful products.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/asia.201700624

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