3 years ago

MR techniques for guiding high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments

Kagayaki Kuroda
To make full use of the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) to guide high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, effort has been made to improve techniques for thermometry, motion tracking, and sound beam visualization. For monitoring rapid temperature elevation with proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift, data acquisition and processing can be accelerated with parallel imaging and/or sparse sampling in conjunction with appropriate signal processing methods. Thermometry should be robust against tissue motion, motion-induced magnetic field variation, and susceptibility change. Thus, multibaseline, referenceless, or hybrid techniques have become important. In cases with adipose or bony tissues, for which PRF shift cannot be used, thermometry with relaxation times or signal intensity may be utilized. Motion tracking is crucial not only for thermometry but also for targeting the focus of an ultrasound in moving organs such as the liver, kidney, or heart. Various techniques for motion tracking, such as those based on an anatomical image atlas with optical-flow displacement detection, a navigator echo to seize the diaphragm position, and/or rapid imaging to track vessel positions, have been proposed. Techniques for avoiding the ribcage and near-field heating have also been examined. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is an alternative to thermometry that can identify the location and shape of the focal spot and sound beam path. This technique could be useful for treating heterogeneous tissue regions or performing transcranial therapy. All of these developments, which will be discussed further in this review, expand the applicability of HIFU treatments to a variety of clinical targets while maintaining safety and precision. Level of Evidence: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:316–331.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25770

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