Asymptotic correlation functions and FFLO signature for the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model.
We study the long-distance asymptotic behavior of various correlation functions for the one-dimensional (1D) attractive Hubbard model in a partially polarized phase through the Bethe ansatz and conformal field theory approaches. We particularly find the oscillating behavior of these correlation functions with spatial power-law decay, of which the pair (spin) correlation function oscillates with a frequency $\Delta k_F$ ($2\Delta k_F$). Here $\Delta k_F=\pi(n_\uparrow-n_\downarrow)$ is the mismatch in the Fermi surfaces of spin-up and spin-down particles. Consequently, the pair correlation function in momentum space has peaks at the mismatch $k=\Delta k_F$, which has been observed in recent numerical work on this model. These singular peaks in momentum space together with the spatial oscillation suggest an analog of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state in the 1D Hubbard model. The parameter $\beta$ representing the lattice effect becomes prominent in critical exponents which determine the power-law decay of all correlation functions. We point out that the backscattering of unpaired fermions and bound pairs within their own Fermi points gives a microscopic origin of the FFLO pairing in 1D.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.08742
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