3 years ago

High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow.

Yangmo Yoo, Won Seuk Jang, Jinbum Kang
Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it leverages between the number of plane-wave angles (<i>N</i>) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e., each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e., sliding window step size or <i>L</i>), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and <i>in vitro</i> studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with <i>L</i> of 1 to 9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (<i>L</i>=<i>N</i>=9), i.e., ≤ 0.24 cm/s, for all <i>L</i> values. For the <i>in vivo</i> study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with high Doppler PRF (e.g., 5kHz at <i>L</i>=4). These results indicate that the proposed HUSDI method can improve flow visualization and quantification with a higher frame rate, PRF and flow sensitivity in cardiovascular imaging.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aaa7a2

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/aaa7a2

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