3 years ago

Tandem In Situ Monitoring for Quantitative Assessment of Mechanochemical Reactions Involving Structurally Unknown Phases

Tandem In Situ Monitoring for Quantitative Assessment of Mechanochemical Reactions Involving Structurally Unknown Phases
Ivan Halasz, Maria Valeria Blanco, Stipe Lukin, Krunoslav Užarević, Darko Babić, Tomislav Friščić, Martina Tireli, Tomislav Stolar
We report herein quantitative in situ monitoring by simultaneous PXRD and Raman spectroscopy of the mechanochemical reaction between benzoic acid and nicotinamide, affording a rich polymorphic system with four new cocrystal polymorphs, multiple phase transformations, and a variety of reaction pathways. After observing polymorphs by in situ monitoring, we were able to isolate and characterize three of the four polymorphs, most of which are not accessible from solution. Relative stabilities among the isolated polymorphs at ambient conditions were established by slurry experiments. Using two complementary methods for in situ monitoring enabled quantitative assessment and kinetic analysis of each studied mechanochemical reaction, even when involving unknown crystal structures, and short-lived intermediates. In situ Raman monitoring was introduced here also as a standalone laboratory technique for quantitative assessment of mechanochemical reactions and understanding of mechanochemical reactivity. Our results provide an important step toward a complete and high-throughput quantitative approach to mechanochemical reaction kinetics and mechanisms, necessary for the development of the mechanistic framework of milling reactions. Tandem mechanochemical monitoring: Quantitative in situ monitoring by simultaneous PXRD and Raman spectroscopy of the mechanochemical reaction between benzoic acid and nicotinamide is reported, enabling direct and unprecedented insight into a rich polymorphic system with four new cocrystal polymorphs, multiple phase transformations, and a variety of reaction pathways (see scheme).

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201702489

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