3 years ago

B(C6F5)3-Catalyzed C3-Selective C–H Borylation of Indoles: Synthesis, Intermediates, and Reaction Mechanism

C3-Selective C–H Borylation of Indoles: Synthesis, Intermediates,
and Reaction Mechanism
Jianghua He, Yuxi Han, Sutao Zhang, Yuetao Zhang
Without the addition of any additives and production of any small molecules, C3-borylated indoles and transfer hydrogenated indolines have been simultaneously achieved by a B(C6F5)3-catalyzed disproportionation reaction of a broad range of indoles with catecholborane. This catalyst system exhibits excellent catalytic performance for practical applications, such as easy scale-up under solvent-free conditions and long catalytic lifetime over ten sequential additions of starting materials. A combined mechanistic study, including isolation and characterization of key reaction intermediates, analysis of the disproportionation nature of the reaction, in situ NMR of the reaction, and analysis of detailed experimental data, has led to a possible reaction mechanism which illustrates pathways for the formation of both major products and byproducts. Understanding the reaction mechanism enables us to successfully suppress side reactions by choosing appropriate substrates and adjusting the amount of catecholborane needed. More importantly, with an elevated reaction temperature, we could achieve the convergent disproportionation reaction of indoles, in which indolines were continuously oxidized to indoles for the next disproportionation catalytic cycle. Near quantitative conversions and up to 98% yields of various C3-selective borylated indoles were achieved, without any additives or H2 acceptors.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.7b02886

DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b02886

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