5 years ago

1,3-syn-Diaxial Repulsion of Typical Protecting Groups Used in Carbohydrate Chemistry in 3-O-Substituted Derivatives of Isopropyl d-Idopyranosides

1,3-syn-Diaxial Repulsion of Typical Protecting Groups Used in Carbohydrate Chemistry in 3-O-Substituted Derivatives of Isopropyl d-Idopyranosides
Andrey S. Dmitrenok, Bozhena S. Komarova, Anastasiia M. Finogenova, Nikolay E. Nifantiev, Yury E. Tsvetkov, Alexey G. Gerbst
The strength of 1,3-syn-diaxial repulsion was evaluated for main types of protecting groups (alkyl, silyl, and acyl) usually used in carbohydrate chemistry. As molecular probes for this study, derivatives of isopropyl 2-O-benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-α-d-idopyranoside bearing allyl, acetyl, and tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) protecting groups at O-3 were prepared from p-methoxyphenyl d-galactopyranoside. The equilibrium between OS2 and 4C1 conformations in these compounds was investigated using 3JH,H and 3JC,H coupling constants that were determined from 1D 1H NMR and 2D J-resolved HMBC spectra in various solvents. The analysis of the corresponding coupling constants calculated using DFT/B3LYP/pcJ-1 approximation applied to conformations optimized at DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level supported the investigation. Proportions of conformers in the equilibrium revealed the highest repulsion between the 3-allyloxy group and the isopropoxy aglycon and its dependence on the solvent polarity. Differences in the conformational behavior of 3-O-allyl and 3-O-acetyl-α-d-idopyranoside derivatives complied with the notion that higher electron density on O-3 increased 1,3-syn-diaxial repulsion. 3-O-TBDPS derivative existed mainly in 4C1 conformation. The attenuation of the 1,3-syn-diaxial repulsive interaction indicates that TBDPS has stereoelectronic properties that may have significance in context of fixing unnatural pyranoside conformation with the help of silyl groups but have been disregarded until now.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.7b01167

DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b01167

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