5 years ago

Chelation-Controlled Additions to Chiral α- and β-Silyloxy, α-Halo, and β-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds

Chelation-Controlled Additions to Chiral α- and β-Silyloxy, α-Halo, and β-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds
Patrick J. Walsh, Xinyuan Fan
The science and art of preventing and managing disease and prolonging life is dependent on advances in medicine, biology, and biochemistry. Many of these advances will involve interactions of small molecules with biological entities. As such, they will rely on the efficient synthesis of active compounds with very high stereochemical purity. Although enantioselective reactions are important in this regard, most stereocenters in complex molecule synthesis are installed in diastereoselective reactions. Perhaps the most well-known diastereoselective C–C bond-forming reaction is the addition of nucleophiles to carbonyl groups with α- or β-stereogenic centers. Diastereoselective additions of organometallic reagents to protected chiral α- and β-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones are described by either Cram chelation or Felkin–Anh models, which are protecting group (PG)-dependent. Small PGs (X = OMOM, OBn, etc.) favor Cram chelation, wherein both the carbonyl group and the O-PG bind to the Lewis acidic metal, providing syn diol motifs. In contrast, silyl PGs, with the OSiR3 moiety being both bulky and weakly coordinating, provide anti diols (Felkin addition). It is well-known that exceptions to this paradigm are scarce. Therefore, the choice of PG is based on the desired stereochemical outcome in the addition step and is often inappropriate for the global protection strategy. Thus, it is critical to develop general methods for chelation-controlled additions of organometallics to chiral silyloxy aldehydes and ketones. Once the challenge of developing chelation-controlled additions to silyloxy carbonyl compounds can be met, the next question is what other pendant functional groups can chelate?

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00319

DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00319

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