3 years ago

Persistent pain following common outpatient surgeries in children: A multicenter study in Italy

Micol Maffioletti, Giorgio Ivani, Valeria Mossetti, Marinella Astuto, Rodolfo Lio, David Zurakowski, Noemi Vicchio, Roberta Nicoletti, Bruno G. Locatelli, Karen Boretsky, Valter Sonzogni
Introduction The prevalence of persistent postsurgical pain in children is over 20% after major surgeries; however, data are scarce on the prevalence, character, and risk factors among children undergoing common ambulatory surgeries. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of persistent pain following pediatric ambulatory surgery at 1, 3, and 6 months. Secondary aims were to identify risk factors and characterize the pain and consequences of persistent postsurgical pain. Methods ASA I-II, ages 1 month to 16 years old, undergoing elective hypospadias repair, herniorraphy, orchiopexy, and orthopedic surgery were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, observational study at 3 pediatric centers in Italy. All patients received general plus regional anesthesia. Postoperative pain was evaluated using age appropriate pain scales at 1 and 3 hours. At 1, 3, and 6 months, pain scores were obtained and Parent's Postoperative Pain Measures (<8 yo) and Child Activity Limitations Interview (>8 yo) surveys were administered. Results About 350 patients completed the study. The prevalence of pain at 1, 3, and 6 months was 24% (84/350), 6.0% (21/350), and 4.0% (14/350), respectively. Inguinal herniorraphy patients experienced significantly higher pain at all 3-time points; 35.6%, 14.9%, and 9.2%. There was no significant association between mean pain scores >4 in PACU and persistent pain. Pain persisting at 6 months had neuropathic characteristics and frequently interfered with daily activities and sleep. Conclusion Our data support the presence of persistent pain in pediatric patients after common surgeries. Most patients who developed persistent pain at 6 months had pain at 1 month. We recommend questioning at follow-up visit about persistent pain and functional impairment with follow-up until resolution.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/pan.13321

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