3 years ago

Towards targeting resolution pathways of airway inflammation in asthma

Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways with mucosal infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and mast cells, and release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators. The natural resolution of airway inflammation is now recognized as an active host response, with highly coordinated cellular events under the control of endogenous pro-resolving mediators that enable the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Lead members of proresolving mediators are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins, and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins, protectins, and maresins. Functionally, these specialized pro-resolving mediators can limit further leukocyte recruitment, induce granulocyte apoptosis, and enhance efferocytosis by macrophages. They can also switch macrophages from classical to alternatively activated cells, promote the return of non-apoptotic cells to lymphatics and blood vessels, and help initiate tissue repair and healing. In this review, we highlight cellular and molecular mechanisms for successful resolution of inflammation, and describe the main specialized pro-resolving mediators that drive these processes. Furthermore, we report recent data suggesting that the pathobiology of severe asthma may result in part from impaired resolution of airway inflammation, including defects in the biosynthesis of these specialized pro-resolving mediators. Finally, we discuss resolution-based therapeutic perspectives.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0163725818300111

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