4 years ago

Interplay of catalysis, fidelity, threading, and processivity in the exo- and endonucleolytic reactions of human exonuclease I [Biochemistry]

Interplay of catalysis, fidelity, threading, and processivity in the exo- and endonucleolytic reactions of human exonuclease I [Biochemistry]
Lorena S. Beese, Homme W. Hellinga, Yuqian Shi

Human exonuclease 1 (hExo1) is a member of the RAD2/XPG structure-specific 5′-nuclease superfamily. Its dominant, processive 5′–3′ exonuclease and secondary 5′-flap endonuclease activities participate in various DNA repair, recombination, and replication processes. A single active site processes both recessed ends and 5′-flap substrates. By initiating enzyme reactions in crystals, we have trapped hExo1 reaction intermediates that reveal structures of these substrates before and after their exo- and endonucleolytic cleavage, as well as structures of uncleaved, unthreaded, and partially threaded 5′ flaps. Their distinctive 5′ ends are accommodated by a small, mobile arch in the active site that binds recessed ends at its base and threads 5′ flaps through a narrow aperture within its interior. A sequence of successive, interlocking conformational changes guides the two substrate types into a shared reaction mechanism that catalyzes their cleavage by an elaborated variant of the two-metal, in-line hydrolysis mechanism. Coupling of substrate-dependent arch motions to transition-state stabilization suppresses inappropriate or premature cleavage, enhancing processing fidelity. The striking reduction in flap conformational entropy is catalyzed, in part, by arch motions and transient binding interactions between the flap and unprocessed DNA strand. At the end of the observed reaction sequence, hExo1 resets without relinquishing DNA binding, suggesting a structural basis for its processivity.

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.