3 years ago

Breaking the Time Barrier in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Fast Free Force Reconstruction Using the G-Mode Platform

Breaking the Time Barrier in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Fast Free Force Reconstruction Using the G-Mode Platform
Stephen Jesse, Liam Collins, Ting Wu, Sergei V. Kalinin, Bin Hu, Mahshid Ahmadi
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers unparalleled insight into structure and material functionality across nanometer length scales. However, the spatial resolution afforded by the AFM tip is counterpoised by slow detection speeds compared to other common microscopy techniques (e.g., optical, scanning electron microscopy, etc.). In this work, we develop an ultrafast AFM imaging approach allowing direct reconstruction of the tip-sample forces with ∼3 order of magnitude higher time resolution than is achievable using standard AFM detection methods. Fast free force recovery (F3R) overcomes the widely viewed temporal bottleneck in AFM, that is, the mechanical bandwidth of the cantilever, enabling time-resolved imaging at sub-bandwidth speeds. We demonstrate quantitative recovery of electrostatic forces with ∼10 μs temporal resolution, free from influences of the cantilever ring-down. We further apply the F3R method to Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements. F3R-KPFM is an open loop imaging approach (i.e., no bias feedback), allowing ultrafast surface potential measurements (e.g., <20 μs) to be performed at regular KPFM scan speeds. F3R-KPFM is demonstrated for exploration of ion migration in organometallic halide perovskite materials and shown to allow spatiotemporal imaging of positively charged ion migration under applied electric field, as well as subsequent formation of accumulated charges at the perovskite/electrode interface. In this work, we demonstrate quantitative F3R-KPFM measurements—however, we fully expect the F3R approach to be valid for all modes of noncontact AFM operation, including noninvasive probing of ultrafast electrical and magnetic dynamics.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b02114

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b02114

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.