3 years ago

BRAP-2 promotes DNA damage induced germline apoptosis in C. elegans through the regulation of SKN-1 and AKT-1

BRAP-2 promotes DNA damage induced germline apoptosis in C. elegans through the regulation of SKN-1 and AKT-1
Terrance J. Kubiseski, Dayana R. D’Amora, Monica Pizzardi, Queenie Hu
As part of the DNA damage response (DDR) network, the tumour suppressor Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is activated to facilitate DNA repair, transcription and cell cycle control. BRC-1, the Caenorhabditiselegans ortholog of BRCA1, has conserved function in DNA double strand break repair, wherein a loss of brc-1 results in high levels of germline apoptosis. BRAP2/IMP was initially identified as a BRCA1 associated binding protein and previously we have shown that the C. elegans brap-2 deletion mutant experiences BRC-1 dependent larval arrest when exposed to low concentrations of paraquat. Since BRC-1 function in the germline is conserved, we wanted to determine the role of BRAP-2 in DNA damage induced germline apoptosis in C. elegans. We examined levels of germ cell death following DNA damage and found that brap-2(ok1492) mutants display reduced levels of germline apoptosis when compared to the wild type, and the loss of brap-2 significantly reduced germ cell death in brc-1 mutant animals. We also found increased mRNA levels of skn-1 following DNA damage in brap-2 mutants and that skn-1 RNAi knockdown in brap-2;brc-1 double mutants and a loss of pmk-1 mutation in brap-2 mutants increased apoptosis to wild type levels, indicating that brap-2 promotion of cell survival requires PMK-1 and SKN-1. Since mammalian BRAP2 has been shown to bind the AKT phosphatase PHLPP1/2, it suggests that BRAP2 could be involved in the Insulin/Insulin-like growth factor Signaling (IIS) pathway. We found that this interaction is conserved between the C. elegans homologs and that a loss of akt-1 in brap-2 mutants increased germline apoptosis. Thus in response to DNA damage, our findings suggest that BRAP-2 is required to attenuate the pro-cell survival signals of AKT-1 and PMK-1/SKN-1 to promote DNA damage induced germline apoptosis.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41418-017-0038-7

DOI: 10.1038/s41418-017-0038-7

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