Xia-Nan Guo, Xiao-Li Liu, Xiao-Meng Yin, Hui-Dong Tang, Bei-Sha Tang, Wei-Guo Tang, Jun-Yi Shen, Sheng Zeng, Li Cao, Qing Liu, Sheng-Di Chen, Xiao-Rong Liu, Yang-Qi Xu, Xiao Mao, Wo-Tu Tian, Mei Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang
Background: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is the most common type of paroxysmal dyskinesia. Approximately half of the cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia worldwide are attributable to proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutations.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate potential causative genes and clinical characteristics in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2–negative patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.
Methods: We analyzed clinical manifestations and performed exome sequencing in a cohort of 163 proline-rich transmembrane protein 2–negative probands, followed by filtering data with a paroxysmal movement disorders gene panel. Sanger sequencing, segregation analysis, and phenotypic reevaluation were used to substantiate the findings.
Results: The clinical characteristics of the enrolled 163 probands were summarized. A total of 39 heterozygous variants were identified, of which 33 were classified as benign, likely benign, and uncertain significance. The remaining 6 variants (3 novel, 3 documented) were pathogenic and likely pathogenic. Of these, 3 were de novo (potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha 1, c.1534A>G; solute carrier family 2 member 1, c.418G>A; sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 8, c.3640G>A) in 3 sporadic individuals, respectively. The other 3 (paroxysmal nonkinesiogenic dyskinesia protein, c.956dupA; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1, c.765C>A; Dishevelled, Egl-10, and Pleckstrin domain containing 5, c.3311C>T) cosegregated in 3 families. All 6 cases presented with typical paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia characteristics, except for the Dishevelled, Egl-10, and Pleckstrin domain containing 5 family, where the proband's mother had abnormal discharges in her temporal lobes in addition to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia episodes.
Conclusions: Our findings extend the genotypic spectrum of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and establish the associations between paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and genes classically related to other paroxysmal movement disorders. De novo variants might be a cause of sporadic paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society