3 years ago

Morphological variation, genetic differentiation and phylogeography of the East Asia cicada Hyalessa maculaticollis (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)

Morphological variation, genetic differentiation and phylogeography of the East Asia cicada Hyalessa maculaticollis (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
YUE QIU, HUAN YANG, CONG WEI, MASAMI HAYASHI, YUNXIANG LIU, XU WANG
The cicada Hyalessa maculaticollis is widely distributed in East Asia, and is noted for its great morphological variability. The variation in this species and its allies has been a long-standing controversy. The population differentiation, genetic structure and phylogeography of this species are explored based on morphological observations, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses, and comparison of the calling song structure of males. Our results reveal that the abundant intraspecific morphological variations are consistent with high levels of genetic divergence in this species, but incongruence between the morphological variations and genetic divergence is found in a few lineages. Phylogenetic and network analyses indicate that H. maculaticollis is composed of two major lineages – China and Japan. The East China Sea (ECS) land bridge acted as a dispersal corridor for H. maculaticollis during the glacial period. The climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene and the terrain structure of East Asia influenced population differentiation. The divergence time between the two sides of the East China Sea is estimated to be ∼1.05 (95% CI = 0.80–1.30) Ma, which was about the same period during which the sea level increased rapidly during the ‘Ryukyu Coral Sea Stage’ (0.2–1.3 Ma). Populations of H. maculaticollis are structured phylogeographically, with the China populations differentiated into a greater number of highly structured haplogroups. Qinling Mountains and the mountainous regions around the Sichuan Basin are presumed to have been major refugia for H. maculaticollis in glacial periods, and a recent population expansion has been detected for populations distributed in the area to the north of Qinling Mountains. The high degree of haplotype and nucleotide diversity shown in East China populations suggests that the flat terrain with low-altitude hills are suitable for the survival of H. maculaticollis. The species H. fuscata, treated as an independent species from H. maculaticollis by some researchers based on acoustic analyses of the calling song structure, is confirmed to be a junior synonym of H. maculaticollis based on the results of our analyses of morphological variation, calling song structure and acoustic playback experiments. In this paper we explored population differentiation, genetic structure and phylogeography of the cicada Hyalessa maculaticollis based on morphological observations, molecular analyses and comparison of calling song structure of males. The abundant intraspecific morphological variations are consistent with high levels of genetic divergence, but incongruence between the morphological variations and genetic divergence is found in only a few lineages. The species H. fuscata, treated as an independent species from H. maculaticollis by some researchers, is confirmed to be a junior synonym of H. maculaticollis based on our results.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/syen.12276

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