3 years ago

Role of Disulfide Bonds in Activity and Stability of Tigerinin-1R.

Yuxin Chen, Cuihua Hu, Xiaolong Chen, Yibing Huang
Tigerinin-1R (Arg-Val-Cys-Ser-Ala-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Ile-Cys-His-NH₂), a cationic 12-mer peptide containing a disulfide bond extracted from frog skin secretions, lacks antibacterial activity, but has the ability to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo. To study the structure-function relationships of tigerinin-1R, we designed and synthesized five analogs, including tigerinin-cyclic, tigerinin-1R-L4, tigerinin-linear, [C3K]tigerinin-1R, and [C11K]tigerinin-1R. Tigerinin-1R promoted insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner in INS-1 cells without obvious cytotoxicity. At a concentration of 10-5 M, [C11K]tigerinin-1R exhibited the highest stimulation ability, suggesting that the positive charge at the C-terminus may contribute to the in vitro insulin-releasing activity of tigerinin-1R. Tigerinin-1R peptides stimulated insulin release in INS-1 cells through a universal mechanism that involves mobilization of intracellular calcium without disrupting the cell membrane. In vivo experiments showed that both tigerinin-1R and [C11K]tigerinin-1R improved glucose tolerance in overnight-fasted mice. Due to its structural stability, tigerinin-1R showed superior hypoglycemic activity to [C11K]tigerinin-1R, which suggested a critical role of the disulfide bonds. In addition, we also identified a protective effect of tigerinin-1R peptides in apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. These results further confirm the potential for the development of tigerinin-1R as an anti-diabetic therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020288

DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020288

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