3 years ago

Large-Grain Tin-Rich Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells via Metal Alloying Technique

Large-Grain Tin-Rich Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells via Metal Alloying Technique
Michael Grätzel, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Zhiyong Fan, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin
Fast research progress on lead halide perovskite solar cells has been achieved in the past a few years. However, the presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite composition as a toxic element still remains a major issue for large-scale deployment. In this work, a novel and facile technique is presented to fabricate tin (Sn)-rich perovskite film using metal precursors and an alloying technique. Herein, the perovskite films are formed as a result of the reaction between Sn/Pb binary alloy metal precursors and methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a chemical vapor deposition process carried out at 185 °C. It is found that in this approach the Pb/Sn precursors are first converted to (Pb/Sn)I2 and further reaction with MAI vapor leads to the formation of perovskite films. By using Pb–Sn eutectic alloy, perovskite films with large grain sizes up to 5 µm can be grown directly from liquid phase metal. Consequently, using an alloying technique and this unique growth mechanism, a less-toxic and efficient perovskite solar cell with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.04% is demonstrated, while pure Sn and Pb perovskite solar cells prepared in this manner yield PCEs of 4.62% and 14.21%, respectively. It is found that this alloying technique can open up a new direction to further explore different alloy systems (binary or ternary alloys) with even lower melting point. In this work, Sn-rich perovskite solar cells with large grains are fabricated from Pb–Sn eutectic alloy in the liquid phase by using a chemical vapor deposition technique, resulting in a device power conversion efficiency of 14.04% which is comparable with that of a pure Pb devices and among the highest for Sn-rich binary Sn/Pb metal perovskite solar cells.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201705998

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