3 years ago

The Initial mass function of the first stars inferred from extremely metal-poor stars.

Ken'ichi Nomoto, Nozomu Tominaga, Chiaki Kobayashi, Miho N. Ishigaki

We compare elemental abundance patterns of $\sim 200$ extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H]%CONTENT%lt;-3$) stars with supernova yields of metal-free stars in order to obtain insights into the characteristic masses of the first (Population III or Pop III) stars in the Universe. Supernova yields are prepared with nucleosynthesis calculations of metal-free stars with various initial masses ($M=$13, 15, 25, 40 and 100 $M_{\odot}$) and explosion energies ($E_{51}=E/10^{51}$[erg]$=0.5-60$) to include low-energy, normal-energy, and high-energy explosions. We adopt the mixing-fallback model to take into account possible asymmetry in the supernova explosions and the yields that best-fit the observed abundance patterns of the EMP stars are searched by varying the model parameters. We find that the abundance patterns of the EMP stars are predominantly best-fitted with the supernova yields with initial masses $M<40 M_{\odot}$, and that more than than half of the stars are best fitted with the $M=25 M_\odot$ hypernova ($E_{51}=10$) models. The results also indicate that the majority of the primordial supernovae have ejected $10^{-2}-10^{-1} M_\odot$ of $^{56}$Ni leaving behind a compact remnant, either a neutron star or a black hole, with mass in a range of $\sim 1.5-5 M_{\odot}$. The results suggest that the masses of the first stars responsible for the first metal-enrichment are predominantly %CONTENT%lt; 40 M_{\odot}$. This implies that the higher mass first stars were either less abundant or directly collapsing into a blackhole without ejecting heavy elements or that a supernova explosion of a higher-mass first star inhibits the formation of the next generation of low-mass stars at [Fe/H]%CONTENT%lt;-3$.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.07763

DOI: arXiv:1801.07763v1

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