Robert G Sheiman, Kamaldeep Sahi, Noam Z Millo, Olga R Brook, Robert A Kane, Bettina Siewert, Maryellen R M Sun
Purpose To evaluate whether an incidentally noted splenic mass at abdominal computed tomography (CT) requires further imaging work-up. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, a search of a CT database was performed for patients with splenic masses at CT examinations of the abdomen and chest from 2002 to 2008. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, patients with a history of malignancy; group 2, patients with symptoms such as weight loss, fever, or pain related to the left upper quadrant and epigastrium; and group 3, patients with incidental findings. Patients' CT scans, follow-up examinations, and electronic medical records were reviewed. Final diagnoses of the causes of the masses were confirmed with imaging follow-up (83.9%), clinical follow-up (13.7%), and pathologic examination (2.4%). Results This study included 379 patients, 214 (56.5%) women and 165 (43.5%) men, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 59.3 years ± 15.3 (range, 21-97 years). There were 145 (38.3%) patients in the malignancy group, 29 (7.6%) patients in the symptomatic group, and 205 (54.1%) patients in the incidental group. The incidence of malignant splenic masses was 49 of 145 (33.8%) in the malignancy group, eight of 29 (27.6%) in the symptomatic group, and two of 205 (1.0%) in the incidental group (P < .0001). The incidental group consisted of new diagnoses of lymphoma in one (50%) patient and metastases from ovarian carcinoma in one (50%) patient. Malignant splenic masses in the incidental group were not indeterminate, because synchronous tumors in other organs were diagnostic of malignancy. Conclusion In an incidental splenic mass, the likelihood of malignancy is very low (1.0%). Therefore, follow-up of incidental splenic masses may not be indicated. © RSNA, 2018.