3 years ago

Caging tin oxide in three-dimensional graphene networks for superior volumetric lithium storage

Caging tin oxide in three-dimensional graphene networks for superior volumetric lithium storage
Daliang Han, Xinghao Zhang, Wei Lv, Junwei Han, Quan-Hong Yang, Dai-Ming Tang, Dmitri Golberg, Zhichang Xiao, Debin Kong, Xinzi He, Chao Zhang, Linjie Zhi, Feiyu Kang, Jing Xiao, Chen Zhang, Donghai Liu, Ying Tao, Feng-Chun Hsia
Tin and its compounds hold promise for the development of high-capacity anode materials that could replace graphitic carbon used in current lithium-ion batteries. However, the introduced porosity in current electrode designs to buffer the volume changes of active materials during cycling does not afford high volumetric performance. Here, we show a strategy leveraging a sulfur sacrificial agent for controlled utility of void space in a tin oxide/graphene composite anode. In a typical synthesis using the capillary drying of graphene hydrogels, sulfur is employed with hard tin oxide nanoparticles inside the contraction hydrogels. The resultant graphene-caged tin oxide delivers an ultrahigh volumetric capacity of 2123 mAh cm–3 together with good cycling stability. Our results suggest not only a conversion-type composite anode that allows for good electrochemical characteristics, but also a general synthetic means to engineering the packing density of graphene nanosheets for high energy storage capabilities in small volumes.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02808-2

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02808-2

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