3 years ago

Cryptococcosis in an Infectious Diseases Hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revision of 2041 cases: Diagnosis, clinical features and therapeutics

Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. Aims The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. Methods Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database. Mycological exams from different clinical samples were performed. Cryptococcal capsular antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid was detected through the latex agglutination technique. Cryptococcus isolates were phenotypically identified and the genotype was determined in some of them. Susceptibility tests were carried out following M27-A3 document. Results Seventy five percent of HIV+positive patients and 50% of the HIV-negative population were males. Mean ages were 34.1 in HIV+positive patients and 44.8 in the HIV-negative. Cryptococcosis was associated with AIDS in 98% of the cases. Meningeal compromise was seen in 90% of the patients. Although cerebrospinal fluid rendered more positive results, blood culture was the first diagnostic finding in some cases. Cryptococcal antigen showed positive results in 96.2% of the sera samples and in the 93.1% of the cerebrospinal fluid samples. Most of the isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans and belonged to genotype VNI. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were mostly below the epidemiological cutoff values. Conclusions We observed that thanks to a high level of clinical suspicion, early diagnosis, combined therapy and intracranial pressure control by daily lumbar punctures, the global mortality rate has markedly decreased through the years in the analyzed period.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S113014061730089X

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