3 years ago

Mucormicosis pulmonar en un paciente con trasplante renal y hemoptisis incoercible

La mucormicosis pulmonar es una infección oportunista rara con alta mortalidad causada por hongos Mucorales. Los más frecuentes son Rhizopus, Mucor, Lichtheimia y Rhizomucor. Caso clínico Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 56 años con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y enfermedad renal crónica, receptora de un trasplante de riñón cadavérico dos años antes de su ingreso. Por este motivo recibió tratamiento inmunomodulador con timoglobulina, micofenolato de mofetilo, tacrolimus y prednisona. La paciente ingresó por un cuadro neumónico con tos, expectoración y disnea; una tomografía computarizada mostró una lesión cavitada en el lóbulo superior derecho. Con la sospecha de una aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva se comenzó un tratamiento antifúngico con voriconazol, sin mejoría. Se realizó una biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina, y en el cultivo de la misma creció Rhizomucor pusillus. La identificación se confirmó por PCR. A pesar del tratamiento con anfotericina B, la paciente presentó hemoptisis masiva incoercible, que provocó su fallecimiento. Conclusiones La mucormicosis pulmonar es una infección rara que suele ser fatal en receptores de trasplante renal con terapia antirrechazo. Los mucorales producen fenómenos trombóticos, necrosis y destrucción tisular, que provocaron en nuestra paciente una hemoptisis incoercible. Es importante un diagnóstico preciso que permita instaurar un tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado y la administración de anfotericina B. Background Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection with high mortality that is caused by species of Mucorales. The most common species involved are Rhizopus, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Rhizomucor. Case report A 56 year-old woman presented with a clinical history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic renal disease. She underwent a cadaveric kidney transplantation two years before her admission, for which immunomodulating therapy with thymoglobulin, tacrolimus, mofetil-microphenolate and prednisone was established. The patient suffered a pneumonic process with cough, expectoration, and dyspnoea. The computed tomography scan showed a cavitation in the right upper lobe. With all these findings an invasive broncopulmonary aspergillosis was suspected and the patient began an antifungal treatment with voriconazole without improvement. Rhizomucor pusillus was isolated from a clinical specimen obtained by fine needle aspiration, and its identification was confirmed by PCR. After this finding amphotericin B was administered, but the patient had an uncontrolled haemoptysis and died. Conclusions Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare infection, usually fatal in kidney transplant recipients with anti-rejection therapy. Mucorales species usually produce thrombotic phenomena, associated with necrosis and parenchymal destruction that caused a fatal uncontrolled haemoptysis in our patient. Early diagnosis is important in order to perform any surgical treatment and to administer amphotericin B.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S113014061730061X

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