3 years ago

Deconstructing Quinoline-Class Antimalarials to Identify Fundamental Physicochemical Properties of Beta-Hematin Crystal Growth Inhibitors

Deconstructing Quinoline-Class Antimalarials to Identify Fundamental Physicochemical Properties of Beta-Hematin Crystal Growth Inhibitors
Tam Q. Nguyen, Katy N. Olafson, Peter G. Vekilov, Jeffrey D. Rimer
A versatile approach to control crystallization involves the use of modifiers, which are additives that interact with crystal surfaces and alter their growth rates. Elucidating a modifier's binding specificity to anisotropic crystal surfaces is a ubiquitous challenge that is critical to their design. In this study, we select hematin, a byproduct of malaria parasites, as a model system to examine the complementarity of modifiers (i.e., antimalarial drugs) to β-hematin crystal surfaces. We divide two antimalarials, chloroquine and amodiaquine, into segments consisting of a quinoline base, common to both drugs, and side chains that differentiate their modes of action. Using a combination of scanning probe microscopy, bulk crystallization, and analytical techniques, we show that the base and side chain work synergistically to reduce the rate of hematin crystallization. In contrast to general observations that modifiers retain their function upon segmentation, we show that the constituents do not act as modifiers. A systematic study of quinoline isomers and analogues shows how subtle rearrangement and removal of functional moieties can create effective constituents from previously ineffective modifiers, along with tuning their inhibitory modes of action. These findings highlight the importance of specific functional moieties in drug compounds, leading to an improved understanding of modifier–crystal interactions that could prove to be applicable to the design of new antimalarials. Deciphering the puzzle: Two common quinolone-class antimalarial drugs have been investigated to determine the role of their constituent base and side-chain components as inhibitors for beta-hematin crystal growth. Through the deconstruction and redesign of antimalarial drugs, new insights into the molecular recognition between inhibitors and crystal surfaces have been reported.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201702251

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