4 years ago

Dense CO Adlayers as Enablers of CO Hydrogenation Turnovers on Ru Surfaces

Dense CO Adlayers as Enablers of CO Hydrogenation Turnovers on Ru Surfaces
Enrique Iglesia, David Hibbitts, Jianwei Liu
High CO* coverages lead to rates much higher than Langmuirian treatments predict because co-adsorbate interactions destabilize relevant transition states less than their bound precursors. This is shown here by kinetic and spectroscopic data—interpreted by rate equations modified for thermodynamically nonideal surfaces—and by DFT treatments of CO-covered Ru clusters and lattice models that mimic adlayer densification. At conditions (0.01–1 kPa CO; 500–600 K) which create low CO* coverages (0.3–0.8 ML from in situ infrared spectra), turnover rates are accurately described by Langmuirian models. Infrared bands indicate that adlayers nearly saturate and then gradually densify as pressure increases above 1 kPa CO, and rates become increasingly larger than those predicted from Langmuir treatments (15-fold at 25 kPa and 70-fold at 1 MPa CO). These strong rate enhancements are described here by adapting formalisms for reactions in nonideal and nearly incompressible media (liquids, ultrahigh-pressure gases) to handle the strong co-adsorbate interactions within the nearly incompressible CO* adlayer. These approaches show that rates are enhanced by densifying CO* adlayers because CO hydrogenation has a negative activation area (calculated by DFT), analogous to how increasing pressure enhances rates for liquid-phase reactions with negative activation volumes. Without these co-adsorbate effects and the negative activation area of CO activation, Fischer–Tropsch synthesis would not occur at practical rates. These findings and conceptual frameworks accurately treat dense surface adlayers and are relevant in the general treatment of surface catalysis as it is typically practiced at conditions leading to saturation coverages of reactants or products.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b04606

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b04606

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