5 years ago

Function and Structure of MalA/MalA′, Iterative Halogenases for Late-Stage C–H Functionalization of Indole Alkaloids

Function and Structure of MalA/MalA′, Iterative Halogenases for Late-Stage C–H Functionalization of Indole Alkaloids
Richmond Sarpong, Marc Garcia-Borràs, David H. Sherman, Ashootosh Tripathi, Qingyun Dan, Gabrielle P. Webb, Amy E. Fraley, Phillip Crews, Katharine R. Watts, Hong Tran, Eduardo V. Mercado-Marin, Janet L. Smith, K. N. Houk, Robert M. Williams, Dheeraj Khare
Malbrancheamide is a dichlorinated fungal indole alkaloid isolated from both Malbranchea aurantiaca and Malbranchea graminicola that belongs to a family of natural products containing a characteristic bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane core. The introduction of chlorine atoms on the indole ring of malbrancheamide differentiates it from other members of this family and contributes significantly to its biological activity. In this study, we characterized the two flavin-dependent halogenases involved in the late-stage halogenation of malbrancheamide in two different fungal strains. MalA and MalA′ catalyze the iterative dichlorination and monobromination of the free substrate premalbrancheamide as the final steps in the malbrancheamide biosynthetic pathway. Two unnatural bromo-chloro-malbrancheamide analogues were generated through MalA-mediated chemoenzymatic synthesis. Structural analysis and computational studies of MalA′ in complex with three substrates revealed that the enzyme represents a new class of zinc-binding flavin-dependent halogenases and provides new insights into a potentially unique reaction mechanism.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b06773

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b06773

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