5 years ago

Identification of NRAS isoform 2 overexpression as a mechanism facilitating BRAF inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma [Cell Biology]

Identification of NRAS isoform 2 overexpression as a mechanism facilitating BRAF inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma [Cell Biology]
Gonzalo N. Olaverria Salavaggione, William E. Carson III, Albert de la Chapelle, James S. Blachly, Megan C. Duggan, Ann-Kathrin Eisfeld, Kelly Regan, Madison Krischak, Christopher J. Walker, Andrew R. Stiff, Susheela Tridandapani, Maryam Bainazar, Nicholas Latchana, Sophia Maharry

Activating mutations in BRAF are found in 50% of melanomas and although treatment with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) is effective, resistance often develops. We now show that recently discovered NRAS isoform 2 is up-regulated in the setting of BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma, in both cell lines and patient tumor tissues. When isoform 2 was overexpressed in BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines, melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth were significantly increased in the presence of BRAFi treatment. shRNA-mediated knockdown of isoform 2 in BRAFi resistant cells restored sensitivity to BRAFi compared with controls. Signaling analysis indicated decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and increased phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling in isoform 2 overexpressing cells compared with isoform 1 overexpressing cells. Immunoprecipitation of isoform 2 validated a binding affinity of this isoform to both PI3K and BRAF/RAF1. The addition of an AKT inhibitor to BRAFi treatment resulted in a partial restoration of BRAFi sensitivity in cells expressing high levels of isoform 2. NRAS isoform 2 may contribute to resistance to BRAFi by facilitating PI3K pathway activation.

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