3 years ago

What Each Clinical Anatomist Has to Know about Left Renal Vein Entrapment Syndrome (Nutcracker Syndrome): A Review of the Most Important Findings.

Krzysztof Orczyk, Agata Majos, Mirosław Topol, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Michał Polguj
Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is the most common term for compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. The development of NCS is associated with the formation of the left renal vein (LRV) from the aortic collar during the sixth to eighth week of gestation and abnormal angulation of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. Collateralization of venous circulation is the most significant effect of NCS. It includes mainly the left gonadal vein and the communicating lumbar vein. Undiagnosed NCS may affect retroperitoneal surgery and other radiological and vascular procedures. The clinical symptoms of NCS may generally be described as renal presentation when symptoms like haematuria, left flank pain, and proteinuria occur, but urologic presentation is also possible. Radiological methods of confirming NCS include Doppler ultrasonography as a primary test, retrograde venography, which can measure the renocaval pressure gradient, computed tomography angiography, which is faster and less traumatic, intravascular ultrasound, and magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment can be conservative or surgical, depending on the severity of symptoms and degree of LRV occlusion. Nutcracker syndrome is worth considering especially in differential diagnosis of haematuria of unknown origin.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1746570

DOI: 10.1155/2017/1746570

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