3 years ago

Origin and transformation of the in-flight wing-coupling structure in Psocodea (Insecta: Paraneoptera)

Origin and transformation of the in-flight wing-coupling structure in Psocodea (Insecta: Paraneoptera)
Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
Many four-winged insects have mechanisms that unite the forewings and hindwings in a single plane. Such an in-flight wing coupling apparatus may improve flight performance in four-winged insects, but its structure is variable among different insect groups. The wings of bark lice (Insecta: Psocodea: “Psocoptera”) also have an in-flight wing coupling apparatus, but to date, its morphology has not been studied in detail. In this study, we examined the wing-coupling structure in representative species of the three suborders of bark lice (Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha, and Psocomorpha) and inferred its origin and transformation. We conclude that the main component of the psocodean wing coupling apparatus evolved once in the common ancestor via modification of cuticular structures at the apex of the forewing CuP vein. Morphological differences in components of the coupling structures are phylogenetically informative at the intraorder level and include an autapomorphy that characterizes Troctomorpha and a synapomorphy that supports a sister relationship between Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha. Wing-coupling structures of insects mechanically unite the forewings and hindwings. The structure in different “Psocoptera” (barklice) groups consists of three functional units, termed retinaculum, CuP tip, and retainer, which originated in the common ancestor, and are phylogenetically informative at different levels in the order.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20785

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.