3 years ago

The development of lingual glands in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica): 3D-reconstruction, LM, and SEM study

The development of lingual glands in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica): 3D-reconstruction, LM, and SEM study
Pieter Cornillie, Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak
The major salivary glands of birds develop by branching or elongation of the epithelial cords. The development of the minor salivary glands in form of the lingual glands has never been described. Among birds, only Anatidae have three types of the lingual glands: rostral, caudo-lateral, and caudo-medial lingual glands. The study aims to characterize the manner and rate of the lingual glands development in the domestic duck and their topographical arrangement relative to the hyoid apparatus. The study reveals that all three types of the lingual glands develop by branching. We describe five stages of the lingual glands development in the domestic ducks: prebud, initial bud, pseudoglandular, canalicular, and terminal bud stage. The pattern of the lingual glands development in birds is similar to that described for mammals, with the exception, that the terminal buds are formed at the same time as the lumen of the glands. Generally, the rostral lingual gland starts to branch earlier than the caudal lingual glands. The 3D-reconstruction shows the location and direction of lingual gland development relative to the entoglossal cartilage and basibranchial bone. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allow to characterize the histogenesis of the embryonic epithelium into glandular epithelium. At a time of hatching only secretory units of caudal lingual glands resemble the secretory units of the adult domestic duck. The rostral and caudo-lateral lingual glands are arranged on the sides of the entoglossal cartilage and basibranchial bone and caudo-madial lingual glands are located over the basibranchial bone. We suggest that such an arrangement of the lingual glands in the domestic duck is important during food intake and responsible for reduction of friction and formation of food bites. 3D-reconstructions and microscopic observations were used to describe the development of the lingual glands in the domestic duck. The three types of the lingual glands develop by branching of the epithelial cords. Generally, the rostral lingual glands branch earlier than the caudal lingual glands. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy document the differentiation of the simple epithelial cords of lingual glands into complex alveolar-tubular glands.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20774

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