3 years ago

Motivation to the Past, Present, and Future: Time Orientation and Disorientation before Therapy

Terence V Bowles
Objectives The aim of this research was to confirm the structure of time orientation and affects associated with the past, present, and future and self-esteem of those beginning therapy and a comparison group. Method Responses from clinical respondents (n = 217; mean age 33 years) and non-clinical respondent (n = 196; mean age 34 years) were used to analyse the structure of the measures. A matched group method was used to investigate group differences based on clinical status and gender of the respondent. Results The measures of time orientation and measures of affects associated with the past, present, and future were well structured and provide evidence of a balanced view in which an orientation to each time dimension is important. Results showed that the therapeutic group was less future, present, and past oriented. Further, the therapeutic group was consistently and significantly higher on negative affect and lower on positive affect and self-esteem than the comparison group. The findings are discussed in reference to therapeutic and theoretical implications. Conclusions The concept of time orientation and the associated affects is of substantial interest to therapeutic interventions and the findings provide some evidence of the utility of attending to the strength of orientation to the three time dimensions and the dependency between them over their apparent separateness. The measures have utility in providing insights that inform the focus of therapy.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/ap.12289

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