3 years ago

Plasmodium yoelii S4/CelTOS is important for sporozoite gliding motility and cell traversal

Hayley Cardamone, Ashley M. Vaughan, Will Betz, Ying Pei, Alexis Kaushansky, Thomas Martinson, Dorender A. Dankwa, Sara Carbonetti, Stefan H.I. Kappe, Nicholas Dambrauskas, D. Noah Sather, Nelly Camargo, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Thao Nguyen, Ryan W.J. Steel
Gliding motility and cell traversal by the Plasmodium ookinete and sporozoite invasive stages allow penetration of cellular barriers to establish infection of the mosquito vector and mammalian host, respectively. Motility and traversal are not observed in red cell infectious merozoites, and we have previously classified genes that are expressed in sporozoites but not merozoites (S genes) in order to identify proteins involved in these processes. The S4 gene has been described as criticaly involved in Cell Traversal for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS), yet knockout parasites (s4/celtos¯) do not generate robust salivary gland sporozoite numbers, precluding a thorough analysis of S4/CelTOS function during host infection. We show here that a failure of oocysts to develop or survive in the midgut contributes to the poor mosquito infection by Plasmodium yoelii (Py) s4/celtos¯ rodent malaria parasites. We rescued this phenotype by expressing S4/CelTOS under the ookinete-specific circumsporozoite protein and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein-related protein (CTRP) promoter (S4/CelTOSCTRP), generating robust numbers of salivary gland sporozoites lacking S4/CelTOS that were suitable for phenotypic analysis. Py S4/CelTOSCTRP sporozoites showed reduced infectivity in BALB/c mice when compared to wild-type sporozoites, although they appeared more infectious than sporozoites deficient in the related traversal protein PLP1/SPECT2 (Py plp1/spect2¯). Using in vitro assays, we substantiate the role of S4/CelTOS in sporozoite cell traversal, but also uncover a previously unappreciated role for this protein for sporozoite gliding motility.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/cmi.12817

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