5 years ago

Probing Membrane Receptor–Ligand Specificity with Surface- and Tip- Enhanced Raman Scattering

Probing Membrane Receptor–Ligand Specificity with Surface- and Tip- Enhanced Raman Scattering
Hao Wang, Karen A. Bailey, Lifu Xiao, Zachary D. Schultz
The specific interaction between a ligand and a protein is a key component in minimizing off-target effects in drug discovery. Investigating these interactions with membrane protein receptors can be quite challenging. In this report, we show how spectral variance observed in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be correlated with ligand specificity in affinity-based assays. Variations in the enhanced Raman spectra of three peptide ligands (i.e., cyclic-RGDFC, cyclic-isoDGRFC, and CisoDGRC), which have different binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin, are reported from isolated proteins and from receptors in intact cancer cell membranes. The SERS signal from the purified proteins provides basis spectra to analyze the signals in cells. Differences in the spectral variance within the SERS and TERS data for each ligand indicate larger variance for nonspecific ligand–receptor interactions. The SERS and TERS results are correlated with single particle tracking experiments of the ligand-functionalized nanoparticles with purified receptors on glass surfaces and living cells. These results demonstrate the ability to elucidate protein–ligand recognition using the observed vibrational spectra and provide perspective on binding specificity for small-molecule ligands in intact cell membranes, demonstrating a new approach for investigating drug specificity.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01796

DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01796

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