3 years ago

A new mechanism of interferon’s antiviral action: Induction of autophagy, essential for paramyxovirus replication, is inhibited by the interferon stimulated gene, TDRD7

Ritu Chakravarti, Ying Zhang, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Gayatri Subramanian, Manoj Veleeparambil, Teodora Kuzmanovic, Cara Beate Peter, Ganes C. Sen
The interferon (IFN) system represents the first line of defense against a wide range of viruses. Virus infection rapidly triggers the transcriptional induction of IFN-β and IFN Stimulated Genes (ISGs), whose protein products act as viral restriction factors by interfering with specific stages of virus life cycle, such as entry, transcription, translation, genome replication, assembly and egress. Here, we report a new mode of action of an ISG, IFN-induced TDRD7 (tudor domain containing 7) inhibited paramyxovirus replication by inhibiting autophagy. TDRD7 was identified as an antiviral gene by a high throughput screen of an ISG shRNA library for blocking IFN’s protective effect against Sendai virus (SeV) replication. The antiviral activity of TDRD7 against SeV, human parainfluenza virus 3 and respiratory syncytial virus was confirmed by its genetic ablation or ectopic expression in several types of mouse and human cells. TDRD7’s antiviral action was mediated by its ability to inhibit autophagy, a cellular catabolic process which was robustly induced by SeV infection and required for its replication. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TDRD7 interfered with the activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), an enzyme required for initiating autophagy. AMPK activity was required for efficient replication of several paramyxoviruses, as demonstrated by its genetic ablation or inhibition of its activity by TDRD7 or chemical inhibitors. Therefore, our study has identified a new antiviral ISG with a new mode of action.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006877

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