3 years ago

Conformational Coupling and trans-Inhibition in the Human Antigen Transporter Ortholog TmrAB Resolved with Dipolar EPR Spectroscopy

Conformational
Coupling and trans-Inhibition in the
Human Antigen Transporter Ortholog TmrAB Resolved with Dipolar EPR
Spectroscopy
Benesh Joseph, Thomas F. Prisner, Robert Tampé, Katja Barth, Susanne Hank, Philipp E. Spindler
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters actively move chemically diverse substrates across biological membranes. Their malfunction leads to human diseases. Many ABC exporters encompass asymmetric nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs), and some of them are inhibited by the transported substrate. The functional relevance of the catalytic asymmetry or the mechanism for trans-inhibition remains elusive. Here, we investigated TmrAB, a functional homologue of the human antigen translocation complex TAP using advanced electron–electron double resonance spectroscopy. In the presence of ATP, the heterodimeric ABC exporter exists in a tunable equilibrium between inward- and outward-facing conformations. The two NBSs exhibit pronounced asymmetry in the open-to-close equilibrium. The closed conformation is more favored at the degenerate NBS, and closure of either of the NBS is sufficient to open the extracellular gate. We define the mechanistic basis for trans-inhibition, which operates by a reverse transition from the outward-facing state through an occluded conformation. These novel findings uncover the central role of reversible conformational equilibrium in the function and regulation of an ABC exporter and establish a mechanistic framework for future investigations on other medically important transporters with imprinted asymmetry. Also, this study demonstrates for the first-time the feasibility to resolve equilibrium populations at multiple domains and their interdependence for global conformational changes in a large membrane protein complex.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b12409

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b12409

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