Effects of heterogeneity in power-grid network models.
We have compared the phase synchronization transition of the second order Kuramoto model on 2D lattices and on large, synthetic power-grid networks, generated from real data. The latter are weighted, hierarchical modular networks. Due to the inertia the synchronization transitions are of first order type, characterized by fast relaxation and hysteresis by varying the global coupling parameter K. Finite size scaling analysis shows that the transition point scales with the system size N as K/N, thus there is no real phase transition in the thermodynamic limit, unlike in the mean-field model. The order parameter fluctuations do not depend on the network size. In case of the power-grids the phase synchronization is weaker and breaks down at a higher K/N, than in case of lattices. The temporal behavior of de-synchronization avalanches has been followed and duration distributions with power-law tails have been detected below the transition in case of quenched, intrinsic frequencies of the nodes. This suggests rare region effects, resulting in scale-free distributions even without a self organization mechanism.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.09492