3 years ago

Enzymes as Immunotherapeutics

Enzymes as Immunotherapeutics
Benjamin G. Keselowsky, Sabrina L. Freeman, Evelyn Bracho-Sanchez, Gregory A. Hudalla, Shaheen A. Farhadi
Enzymes are attractive as immunotherapeutics because they can catalyze shifts in the local availability of immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive signals. Clinical success of enzyme immunotherapeutics frequently hinges upon achieving sustained biocatalysis over relevant time scales. The time scale and location of biocatalysis are often dictated by the location of the substrate. For example, therapeutic enzymes that convert substrates distributed systemically are typically designed to have a long half-life in circulation, whereas enzymes that convert substrates localized to a specific tissue or cell population can be more effective when designed to accumulate at the target site. This Topical Review surveys approaches to improve enzyme immunotherapeutic efficacy via chemical modification, encapsulation, and immobilization that increases enzyme accumulation at target sites or extends enzyme half-life in circulation. Examples provided illustrate “replacement therapies” to restore deficient enzyme function, as well as “enhancement therapies” that augment native enzyme function via supraphysiologic doses. Existing FDA-approved enzyme immunotherapies are highlighted, followed by discussion of emerging experimental strategies such as those designed to enhance antitumor immunity or resolve inflammation.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.7b00719

DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.7b00719

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