Globular Cluster Formation and Evolution in the Context of Cosmological Galaxy Assembly: Open Questions.
We discuss some of the key open questions regarding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) during galaxy formation and assembly within a cosmological framework. The current state-of-the-art for both observations and simulations is described, and we briefly mention directions for future research. The oldest GCs have ages $\ge$ 12.5 Gyr and formed around the time of reionisation. Resolved colour-magnitude diagrams of Milky Way GCs and direct imaging of lensed proto-GCs at z $\sim$ 6 with JWST promise further insight. Globular clusters are known to host multiple populations of stars with variations in their chemical abundances. Recently, such multiple populations have been detected in $\sim$2 Gyr old compact, massive star clusters. This suggests a common, single pathway for the formation of GCs at high and low redshift. The shape of the initial mass function for GCs remains unknown, however for massive galaxies a power-law mass function is favoured. Significant progress has been made recently modelling GC formation in the context of galaxy formation, with success in reproducing many of the observed GC-galaxy scaling relations.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.05818