<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> ExlA and <i>Serratia marcescens</i> ShlA trigger cadherin cleavage by promoting calcium influx and ADAM10 activation
by Emeline Reboud, Stéphanie Bouillot, Sabine Patot, Benoît Béganton, Ina Attrée, Philippe HuberPore-forming toxins are potent virulence factors secreted by a large array of bacteria. Here, we deciphered the action of ExlA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ShlA from Serratia marcescens on host cell-cell junctions. ExlA and ShlA are two members of a unique family of pore-forming toxins secreted by a two-component secretion system. Bacteria secreting either toxin induced an ExlA- or ShlA-dependent rapid cleavage of E-cadherin and VE-cadherin in epithelial and endothelial cells, respectively. Cadherin proteolysis was executed by ADAM10, a host cell transmembrane metalloprotease. ADAM10 activation is controlled in the host cell by cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. We show that Ca2+ influx, induced by ExlA or ShlA pore formation in the plasma membrane, triggered ADAM10 activation, thereby leading to cadherin cleavage. Our data suggest that ADAM10 is not a cellular receptor for ExlA and ShlA, further confirming that ADAM10 activation occurred via Ca2+ signalling. In conclusion, ExlA- and ShlA-secreting bacteria subvert a regulation mechanism of ADAM10 to activate cadherin shedding, inducing intercellular junction rupture, cell rounding and loss of tissue barrier integrity.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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