3 years ago

Acquired EGFR L718V mutation mediates resistance to osimertinib in non-small cell lung cancer but retains sensitivity to afatinib

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are promising targeted therapies for EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops. Comprehensive and dynamic companion genomic diagnosis can gain insights into underlying resistance mechanisms, thereby help oncologists and patients to make informed decision on the potential benefit of the treatment. Materials and methods A 67-year-old male who was initially diagnosed of EGFR L858R-mediated NSCLC received multiple lines of chemotherapy and EGFR TKI therapies after surgery. The EGFR mutational status of individual metastatic lesion was determined by genetic testing of the tumor tissue biopsies using next generation sequencing (NGS) throughout the patient’s clinical course. An acquired potentially drug-resistant EGFR mutation was functionally validated in vitro and its sensitivity to different EGFR TKIs was assessed simultaneously. Results We have identified distinct resistance mechanisms to EGFR blockade in different metastatic lung lesions. Acquired EGFR T790M was first detected that leads to the resistance to the gefitinib treatment. Consequently, osimertinib was administrated and the response lasted until disease progressed. We identified a newly acquired EGFR L718V mutation in one lesion in conjunction with L858R, but not T790M, which showed stable disease on the following erlotinib treatment, while EGFR C797S together with L858R/T790M was detected in the other lesion that continuously progressed. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that EGFR-L858R/L718V confers resistance to osimertinib, but retains sensitivity to the second generation TKI afatinib. Conclusion We reported that distinct resistance mechanisms could arise in different metastases within the same patient in response to EGFR blockade. We also demonstrated in vitro that EGFR L718V mutation mediates resistance to osimertinib, but retains sensitivity to afatinib. We evidenced that dynamic companion genomic diagnosis offers valuable information to help define the mechanisms of drug resistance and to guide the selection of subsequent treatment.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0169500218302290

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