The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin on LPS-stimulated bovine mammary epithelial cells
by Guang-Min Yu, Hirokazu Kubota, Miki Okita, Teruo MaedaMastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle worldwide and not only causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry but also threatens public health. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of melatonin in mastitis, we examined the ability of melatonin to protect bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that melatonin inhibited the LPS-binding protein–CD14–TLR4 signaling pathway in bMECs, which had opposing effects on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Melatonin decreased LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and positive acute-phase proteins (APPs), including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, chemokine CC motif ligand (CCL)2, CCL5, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and α-1 antitrypsin, and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra and the negative APP fibrinogen. In addition, melatonin increased dityrosine levels but suppressed nitrite levels by upregulating the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the Nrf2 antioxidant defense pathway. Finally, melatonin administration increased the viability of LPS-stimulated bMECs. These results suggest that melatonin protects bMECs from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidant stress damage and provide evidence that melatonin might have therapeutic utility in mastitis.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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