5 years ago

Electrochemically Mediated Surface-Initiated de Novo Growth of Polymers for Amplified Electrochemical Detection of DNA

Electrochemically Mediated Surface-Initiated de Novo Growth of Polymers for Amplified Electrochemical Detection of DNA
Gengzhi Sun, Qiangwei Wang, Xueji Zhang, Qiong Hu, Jinming Kong
The development of convenient and efficient strategies without involving any complex nanomaterials or enzymes for signal amplification is of great importance in bioanalytical applications. In this work, we report the use of electrochemically mediated surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-eATRP) as a novel amplification strategy based on the de novo growth of polymers (dnGOPs) for the electrochemical detection of DNA. Specifically, the capture of target DNA (tDNA) by the immobilized peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes provides a high density of phosphate groups for the subsequent attachment of ATRP initiators onto the electrode surface by means of the phosphate-Zr4+-carboxylate chemistry, followed by the de novo growth of electroactive polymer via the SI-eATRP. De novo growth of long polymeric chains enables the labeling of numerous electroactive probes, which in turn greatly improves the electrochemical response. Moreover, it circumvents the slow kinetics and poor coupling efficiency encountered when nanomaterials or preformed polymers are used and features sufficient flexibility and simplicity in controlling the degree of signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, it allows a highly sensitive and selective detection of tDNA within a broad linear range from 0.1 fM to 0.1 nM (R2 = 0.996), with the detection limit down to 0.072 fM. Compared with the unamplified method, more than 1.2 × 106-fold sensitivity improvement in DNA detection can be achieved. By virtue of its simplicity, high efficiency, and cost-effectiveness, the proposed dnGOPs-based signal amplification strategy holds great potential in bioanalytical applications for the sensitive detection of biological molecules.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02039

DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02039

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